MongoDB vs SQL

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MongoDB vs SQL

There are two types of databases available: SQL and NoSQL. MySQL is an example of a SQL database, whereas MongoDB is an example of a NoSQL database. MongoDB stores data in JSON-like documents with variable structures, providing a dynamic, adaptable schema. MongoDB was also developed with auto-sharding for maximum availability and scalability. SQL Server is a database administration and analytical system used in e-commerce and data warehouse applications. MongoDB is one of the numerous databases that fall within the NoSQL database category and are used for large-volume data storage.

MongoDB's design is built on collections and documents rather than tables and rows as in a relational database. Rows (or documents as they are known in MongoDB) do not need to have a schema set ahead of time. Fields can be built on the fly instead. MongoDB's data schema makes it easier to describe hierarchical connections, store arrays, and other more complicated structures.

What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is a cross-platform, open-source, document-oriented, non-relational database system. MongoDB was created by MongoDB Inc. and was originally made available on February 11, 2009. MongoDB 5.0.5, which was published on December 6, 2021, is its stable release. JavaScript, Python, Java, PHP, C++, C, Ruby, and Perl are among the programming languages used.

MongoDB is a NoSQL server that stores data in BSON (Binary JSON) documents, with each document based on a key-value pair format. MongoDB's ability to store schemaless data makes it suitable for collecting data whose structure is unknown. This document-oriented approach is intended to provide a richer experience with contemporary programming approaches.

To install MongoDB click here.

Main features of MongoDB which make it unique are:

High Performance

Because MongoDB is a NoSQL database, data operations are quick and simple. Data can be swiftly saved, modified, and retrieved while maintaining data integrity.


MongoDB data may be distributed rapidly and evenly over a cluster of servers in the Big Data age. MongoDB's scalability is capable of handling increasing amounts of data. When the amount of the data grows, MongoDB uses sharding to horizontally scale it over numerous servers.


MongoDB produces several copies of the same data and transfers copies of data across different servers, making data highly accessible. In the event that one server fails, data may be accessed immediately from another server.


MongoDB is readily integrated with several Database Management Systems, including SQL and NoSQL. Because of the document-oriented nature, the MongoDB schema is dynamically changeable, and various types of data may be readily stored and managed.


What is SQL Server?

SQL Server is a database management system (RDBMS). It is sometimes referred to as Microsoft SQL Server or MSSQL. SQL Server was created by Microsoft and was first released on April 24, 1989. SQL Server 2019, which was launched on November 4, 2019, is its stable release. MSSQL is written in C and C++ computer languages.

SQL Server is built on the relational paradigm proposed by E. F. Codd. Data in RDBMS is kept in tables, and relationships between tables are maintained.

Data in tables are structured in rows and columns. Each column in the table represents a certain field or characteristic, and each row in the table represents an entry or record.

Microsoft SQL Server comes in several editions, each with its own set of features: Express, Enterprise, Standard, Web, and Developer. Express version is freeware for modest and entry-level applications, whilst additional editions are licensed-based and utilized for larger projects on commercial levels, depending on the service required. SQL Server supports the XML data format as well as dynamic administration views.


Here are some of the outlines for SQL and its brief history and background”

  • Its first version was released in 1989 by Microsoft.
  • It supports XML data type support, dynamic management views, and database mirroring.
  • It supports e-commerce and data warehousing.
  • It has several editions: Enterprise, Standard, Web, Business Intelligence, and Express.

The main features of SQL Server that make it highly usable are:

Cloud Database Support

Microsoft SQL Server has versions with built-in security and manageability that can be combined with Microsoft cloud or Azure SQL. Cloud database support makes SQL Server highly accessible, allowing for quick failover with little downtime.

Ease of Management

Microsoft SQL Servers work well with both Windows and Linux platforms. Ottomatik makes SQL Server deployment and maintenance simple.

High Security

SQL Server data is protected and very safe. Tables and schemas may be simply password-secured and accessed with permissions only.

End-to-End Business Data Solutions

SQL Server is primarily intended for commercial usage and delivers end-to-end corporate data solutions. Microsoft SQL Server includes capabilities for data administration, ETL, online analytical processing (OLAP), and data mining. It also includes SQL Server BI capabilities for Option Reporting, Interactive Analysis, and Visual Data Exploration.

The Pros and Cons

SQL Database


  • Simple to write- The core keywords in SQL are SELECT, INSERT, INTO, and UPDATE, which are very self-explanatory and direct, and the syntactical rules in SQL are not complicated.
  • A large amount of data is retrieved quickly and efficiently.
  • It employs a table-based structure.
  • A mature technology that is well-known and widely utilized by developers.
  • Excellent customer service and user experience.


  • Although it makes accessing data straightforward, even for sophisticated queries, it can be restricting at times.
  • Changing the structure can lead to a great deal of confusion.
  • Predefined schemas are required.
  • Scaling is difficult.



  • Is there a dynamic schema?
  • Data is stored in a variety of ways, including document-oriented, column-oriented, and so on.
  • Documents can be generated without a predetermined structure.
  • It is more powerful because of its high scalability.
  • Horizontal scalability
  • High velocity


  • A lot of unsolved questions with a fresher database
  • There is no standard schema definition.
  • There is no joining (A JOIN clause is used to combine rows from two or more tables, based on a related column between them)
  • Memory constraint- MongoDB requires more storage space than other popular databases. Although the inclusion of WiredTiger in recent versions has addressed this issue, it is not optimal in most applications.
  • MongoDB only supports single-document ACID transactions (ACID is a set of properties of database transactions intended to guarantee data validity despite errors and other mishaps.)
  • We have the luxury of triggers in RDBMSs, which have rescued us on numerous occasions. MongoDB does not have this privilege.

Will MongoDB replace SQL Completely?

For the time being, the answer is No. MongoDB will continue to grow in terms of users in the next years, but the easy-to-write syntax of SQL, as well as support for complex analytics and joins, may make any user prefer SQL database over MongoDB. MongoDB is undoubtedly a robust and powerful database, and many people will migrate from SQL databases to MongoDB in the next few years, but it will not replace SQL databases due to its disadvantages.

Although MongoDB is readily scalable, versatile, and simple to use, and will outperform SQL databases in most circumstances, SQL databases have been around for a long time with a defined schema design and a set structure. They are especially well-suited for multi-row transactions with a relational structure.



MongoDB is a more complex database that can handle large amounts of data and has dynamic schema capabilities. SQL Server is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that provides end-to-end corporate data solutions. MongoDB is an excellent choice for unstructured data. MongoDB is also open source, making it easily accessible.

Without a doubt, SQL Server has been around for a long time, but in the age of Big Data, MongoDB appears to have a promising future. However, this does not imply that SQL Server will be fully eliminated. The choice of database between MongoDB and SQL Server is entirely dependent on the demands of the user.




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